White Papers


  • Best Practices for Preventing Water Hammer in Combined Cycle Attemporation Systems

    Attemperation systems are used in power plant steam systems to control steam temperature by injecting sub-cooled water into superheated steam lines. Also known as desuperheaters, these systems reduce the amount of superheat present in the steam but are designed to avoid reducing temperatures all the way down to the saturation point where saturated water may occur in the piping. These systems rely on the enthalply difference between the high pressure, sub-cooled water and the superheated steam to reduce the outlet steam enthalply and the outlet steam temperature through evaporation of the injected water. Read More

  • How To Spend Your First $100,000

    Imagine you are an early stage entrepreneur with a breakthrough technology, some promising intellectual property, and $100K is on the way from a new investor. What do you need to do to maximize your chances of success? Early stage device start ups are more likely to gain access to seed capital rather than a large investment, but they often have a problem figuring out how to spend the money in a way that will lead to more funding. Read More

  • Wind Energy in Mexico: Development and Execution Best Practices

    Development of wind projects in Mexico presents several challenges and opportunities that are unique to the Mexican marketplace. High PPA tariffs and a growing energy market attract developers to the Mexican wind market. However, seizing these opportunities requires developers to understand the needs of stakeholders such as Off-takers, CRE (Energy Regulatory Commission), and CFE (State Owned Utility). Some of the critical development challenges include: identifying viable Points of Interconnection, securing PPA's, working with limited small scale wind data, and managing the substation engineering design, review, and approval process. During the construction phase, some of the important challenges include: major equipment importation, EPC planning and reporting, and site safety, security and theft. Lastly, it is important to appreciate the positive influence of the Spanish workforce during Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) installation and the support from CFE during substation testing and start-up. Read More

  • Energy White Paper: Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased from a pre-industrial level of 280 parts-per-million (ppm) to today's level of 379 ppm [Reference 2]. The primary source of anthropogenic CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels. Studies have shown that capture of anthropogenic CO2 and carbon sequestration could help to stabilize the concentration of atmospheric CO2. This paper investigates the leading methods for carbon sequestration and evaluates them on the bases of cost, capacity and environmental consequences. Other factors such as geographical constraints and the current state of technology are also considered. This white paper covers the following post-capture aspects of carbon sequestration: compression, transport, storage, and monitoring, mitigation and verification (MM+V). Read More

  • Product Development White Paper: On-Line Monitoring and Process Analytical Technologies

    Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are systems which provide continuous on-line monitoring of critical quality parameters and performance attributes of raw and in-process materials. Application of PATs to pharmaceutical manufacturing is an element of FDA's new risk-based approach to regulation described in "GMP's for the 21st Century." This document provides a brief overview of the approach being used to examine and implement PATs in the industry and discusses the roles that MPR can play in this effort. Read More

  • Product Development White Paper: Risk-Based Validation of Computer Systems Used In FDA-Regulated Activities

    This document provides a summary of the requirements relating to use of computer-based systems in activities that are regulated by the FDA. The relevant FDA and industry guidance for complying with these requirements is also summarized. Finally, the approach proposed by MPR for system validation/qualification is discussed. The MPR approach uses risk-based prioritization to identify and address the most critical systems and functions first. For complex distributed systems, MPR's approach is to segment the system on a functional basis. This can be used, for example, to divide network systems into functional components that can then be prioritized based on risk and validated. Read More

  • Hydrogen Production by Nuclear Heat: The Energy Carrier of the Future

    Research and development is constantly underway to create the next generation energy technology. It is impossible to know what the future holds, but future energy technology must be expandable, must be environmentally sound, must be effective and allow for expansion to improve the standard of living around the world, must be safe (both secure from outside threats and with a low risk to health and safety), and the energy technology must be economical. With these factors in mind, many believe that hydrogen is poised to be the next big revolution in the energy market. This paper considers several options for the production phase of this energy medium. The collection, transmission, and end-uses of hydrogen are not discussed. Specifically, the potential of three hydrogen production processes under development for the industrial production of hydrogen using nuclear energy are compared and evaluated. Read More

  • Energy White Paper: Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased from a pre-industrial level of 280 parts-per-million (ppm) to today's level of 379 ppm [Reference 2]. The primary source of anthropogenic CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels. Studies have shown that capture of anthropogenic CO2 and carbon sequestration could help to stabilize the concentration of atmospheric CO2. This paper investigates the leading methods for carbon sequestration and evaluates them on the bases of cost, capacity and environmental consequences. Other factors such as geographical constraints and the current state of technology are also considered. This white paper covers the following post-capture aspects of carbon sequestration: compression, transport, storage, and monitoring, mitigation and verification (MM+V). Read More

  • Energy White Paper: Considerations for Low Sulfur Coal Blending at B. L. England Station

    This paper describes the factors that control the implementation of an on-site coal blending facility at the B. L. England Station. The features of the existing coal stockpile and handling system arrangement that impact the blending alternatives are also discussed. The paper details the evaluations performed to compare the blending control options, including coal storage, online fuel analysis and mass-based blending. In addition, the approach used to incorporate the existing equipment and control system at B. L. England Station to reliably produce a consistent, controlled coal blend is described. Finally, the paper provides a comparison of the estimated costs and schedules required to implement the on-site coal blending alternatives. Read More

  • Energy White Paper: Technical Overview of Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Concerns about global climate change have prompted interest in capturing and sequestering CO2 generated at coal-fired power plants. This document provides a technical introduction to methods of capturing CO2, which involves separating the CO2 from the other constituents in the flue gas. The methods discussed in this paper are post-combustion capture, oxygen-fired combustion, and pre-combustion capture. Read More